Моя любимая страна и ее культура

$

Муниципальное бюджетное общеобразовательное учреждение

«Верхнеуслонская средняя общеобразовательная школа»

Верхнеуслонского района Республики Татарстан

Реферат

Моя любимая страна и ее культура”

$

$

подготовила

учитель английского языка

Файрушина Алина Хамидовна

Верхний Услон

2011

$

THE GREATEST CARNIVAL IN BRITAIN

Цель: формирование толерантного отношение к носителю языка.

формирование уважительного отношения к культуре другой страны.

London is one of the greatest capitals in the world. We all know about the British Museum, the Tower of London and Big Ben. But there is more to London than meets eye.

Every August London is home to the great Notting Hill Carnival — the $largest arts festival in Europe and second largest carnival$ in the world. It is a fantastic event which is open to everyone and is absolutely free! The Carnival has been held on the last weekend of August since 1966 and is celebrating its 45 anniversary next year.

HISTORY

This great festival has its roof in the carnivals of Caribbean, especially Trinidad.

In Trinidad today, the carnival is the main event in the calendar. It starts after Christmas and reaches its most exciting moments during the last two days Ash Wednesday. Then all work stops and cr$owds move through the streets, dancing and singing and wearing all sorts of wild costumes. But it hasn’t always been that way.

In the 1800s, during the days of slavery and British Empire, many black slaves were brought to Trinidad from Africa. They worked on sugar plantations and their life was very hard. Their white masters didn’t allow them to sing, dance or wear their national costumes. They were even forbidden to be in the streets after dark. The only time the slave$s were allowed to play musical instruments was during the imported European Carnival that was held six weeks before Easter. But even then, black people could only take part in it to entertain their white masters.

In 1833, when slavery was abolished, the slaves stormed to the streets to celebrate their freedom. The slaves who had had cruel masters made masks and costumes to make fun of them. It was their first real opportunity to express their feelings about slavery and they did it through dancing and sin$ging.

Soon people from all over Trinidad started to take part in theses streets celebrations. They became experts in the art of costume making, steel drumming and calypso (a folk song telling a story).

In the 1950-60s many Trinidadians immigrated to Britain in the hope of getting a job and making a home. They made good nur$ses, conductors and drivers, but many of them were unemployed. Life was hard for them as there was a lot of racism and inequality. Besides, they missed the warmth and the blue skies of the Caribbean. So one d$ay, remembering their great festivals back home, the Trinidadians decided to organize a street procession in Notting Hill to boost their spirits.

CARNIVAL TODAY

From that small procession through the streets with just a few people in costume playing music and dancing in the 1960s, a huge multi-cultural arts festival has evolved. Up to two million people attend it every year!

Today’s $festival has many of the original elements of the Trinidad Carnival. The most popular of these are the costume parade (also known as the MAS, from MASQUERADE), the calypso and social bands. Soca is a more recent musical form and is very popular. It is a mixture of soul and calypso that has been adapted by second, third and even fourth generation Caribbean’s. It is known the music of Notting Hill Carnival.

Musicians and $artists from all over the world take part in the Carnival. There have been groups from as far as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil and even Russia. Everybody is welcomed.

Although the Carnival aims to celebrate the cultural traditions of its founders, it is open to all modern trends.

The other things that the Carnival is famous for its food. You can try out goat curry, fried bananas, coconut juice, and the legendary jerk chicken – with more hot spices than you $have ever thought possible.

The motto of the Notting Hill Carnival is “Every Spectator is a participant”, so tourist and visitors are invited to join in and dance.

$

There is only one group of people who don’t enjoy the Carnival, and these are the policemen. For them, the Carnival is two days of very hard work. With a busy event like that, safety of participants is very important. Crowd control is a major concern. Things like providing enough toilets are also not to$ be overlooked! The Carnival is also a great place for pickpockets. Each year, the police issue the Carnival Code, a set of rules which all participants are advised to follow. These are just some of the rules:

Enjoy!

Enjoy Carnival – Jump and Chill.

Come early, leave early.

Plan your travel arrangements but be flexible.

Be safe!

Tell the police if you see an incident.

Stay with your friends.

Look out for your kids – it gets very crowded!

Respect!

Stay away if you plan to cause trouble.

Respect others: $don’t be the 1% that ruins carnivals for others.

$Keep the neighbourhood clean.

Don’t turn people’s front gardens into toilets.

A PIECE OF INDIAN SPLENDOUR IN LONDON: Shree Swaminarayan Mandir.

Did you know that there is a beautiful Indian temple in London? In fact, it is the largest Indian temple outside India.

RELIGION IN THE UK

The main religion in the United Kingdom is Christianity. As the UK is a constitutional monarchy, the Queen is both head of state and head of the church. There ar$e two established ch$urches in the UK% the Church of England and the Church if Scotland. However, there are also various non-Christian religious institutions, such as Muslim and Hindu.

British schoolchildren normally start their day with morning Christian prayer. However, almost every school has kids from non-Christian backgrounds, so taking part in Christian prayers is not compulsory. All British kids receive some religious education to learn about different religious and religious beliefs. Most schools are mixed schools, which mean children from any ethnic or cultural backgrounds can join them. However, there are also some specialized schools, such as the all-Russian or all-Muslim schools in London.

Making s$ure that different cultures and faiths coexist happily is not easy. For example, one school in Yorkshire had to ‘ban’ the famous »Three little pigs» story because it upset Muslim children’s feelings. Muslims believe that pigs are dirty animals (for ex$ample, they don’t eat pork), so they don’t find the story funny at all!

BRITISH HINDY COMMUNITY

There are about half million Hindus in the UK. London has the largest Hindu community in Britain.

Hindui$sm is a very old religion which started in India. Nobody knows exactly when it was born. The word Hindu comes from the River Indus, and it just means ‘the people who live near the Indus River’ (now in modern Pakistan). Most Hindus believe that honesty, sincerity, non-violence and devotion to God are essential for good living. Hindus also believe in reincarnation, which means that when you die you would be reborn into another body. If you had been bad you would come back as a cockroach or a rat!

MANDIR

There are over 150 Hindu temples in the UK but the most magnificent one is, undoubtedly, in London.

$Mandir is simply a Hindu name for a temple. The Mandir in London is well worth a visit. It was finished in 1995 and took five years to build. It is made of carved marble and is a true architectural wonder. The material for the temple was first shopped from Bulgaria and Italy to India where it was beautifully carved by 1,500 Indian craftsmen and then shipped to London to be assembled. $The money came from generous donations and various fund raising projects. For example, the Aluminium Recycling Project rose 150,000 by collecting and recycling 7 million aluminum cans and 22 tons of aluminum foil!

$

Fact file: MANDIR CONSTRUCTION

Material: 26,300 carved stone pieces

Largest stone piece: 5, 6, tones

Smallest stone piece: only 50 grams

Features: 500 different designs$

Аннотация

Проект по английскому языку “My favorite country and its culture” исследует культуру и традиции современной Англии. Данный материал считается новым и необычным, чем в свою очередь заинтересовывает учащихся на дальнейшую деятельность. Актуальность данной работы состоит в том, что проект был$ нацелен на исследование праздника Карнавала в Ноттинг Хилле и на существование различных религий в Соединенном Королевстве, а в частности, религии Хинду.

Данный проект носит страноведческий характер и может быть использован как на уроке, так и во внеурочное время по теме “Traditions and customs of Great Britain”. Работа преследует определенные цели, в первую очередь, он формирует у учащихся толерантное отношение к культуре других народов, помогает понять, что уважая других человек, начинает уважать себя, кроме$ того, знакомство с материалом сближает учащихся, делает их дружнее и добрее.

Проект разделен на две части. Первая часть посвящена необычному для Англии празднику, как Карнавал в Ноттинг Хилле. Дается краткое описание истории празднования карнавала и о том как это происходит в современной Англии.

$

Вторая часть рассказывает о существование различных религий и, в частности, описывается религия Хинду и самый красивый и впечатляющий храм Мандир, который был построен в Лондоне.

Данный проект может быть применен в обучении английскому языку учащихся старших классов общеобразовательной школы в различных условиях и позволяет расширить лингвистический и страноведческий кругозор учащихся, повышает уровень владения английским языком.

Ключевые слова: проект, традиция, культура, карнавал, религия, Хинду.

$

Используемая литература:

  1. Speak out 4 1998г.

Дополнительные источники:

Www. bbc.learning English

$

Post Comment